This is a mirror page, please see the original page:

This has been initially supported after the 2.2.2 version, the usage is much simpler, just set the corresponding dependency package, for example:

add_requires("tbox 1.6.*", "libpng ~1.16", "zlib")

    add_packages("tbox", "libpng", "zlib")

The above add_requires is used to describe the dependencies required by the current project, and add_packages is used to apply dependencies to the test target. Only settings will automatically add links, linkdirs, includedirs, etc.

Then directly compile:

$ xmake

xmake will remotely pull the relevant source package, then automatically compile and install, finally compile the project, and link the dependency package. The specific effect is shown in the following figure:

For more information and progress on package dependency management see the related issues: Remote package management

Currently Supported Features

Dependency Package Processing Mechanism

Here we briefly introduce the processing mechanism of the entire dependency package:

  1. Priority check for the current system directory, whether there is a specified package under the third-party package management, if there is a matching package, then you do not need to download and install (of course you can also set the system package)
  2. Retrieve the package matching the corresponding version, then download, compile, and install (Note: installed in a specific xmake directory, will not interfere with the system library environment)
  3. Compile the project, and finally automatically link the enabled dependencies

Semantic Version Settings

Xmake's dependency package management fully supports semantic version selection, for example: "~1.6.1". For a detailed description of the semantic version, see:

Some semantic versions are written:

add_requires("tbox 1.6.*", "pcre 1.3.x", "libpng ^1.18")
add_requires("libpng ~1.16", "zlib 1.1.2 || >=1.2.11 <1.3.0")

The semantic version parser currently used by xmake is the sv library contributed by uael, which also has a description of the version. For detailed instructions, please refer to the following: Version Description

Of course, if we have no special requirements for the current version of the dependency package, then we can write directly:

add_requires("tbox", "libpng", "zlib")

This will use the latest version of the package known, or the source code compiled by the master branch. If the current package has a git repo address, we can also specify a specific branch version:

add_requires("tbox master")
add_requires("tbox dev")

Extra Package Information Settings

Optional Package Settings

If the specified dependency package is not supported by the current platform, or if the compilation and installation fails, then xmake will compile the error, which is reasonable for some projects that must rely on certain packages to work.
However, if some packages are optional dependencies, they can be set to optional packages even if they are not compiled properly.

add_requires("tbox", {optional = true})

Disable System Library

With the default settings, xmake will first check to see if the system library exists (if no version is required). If the user does not want to use the system library and the library provided by the third-party package management, then you can set:

add_requires("tbox", {system = false})

Using the debug version of the package

If we want to debug the dependencies at the same time, we can set them to use the debug version of the package (provided that this package supports debug compilation):

add_requires("tbox", {debug = true})

If the current package does not support debug compilation, you can submit the modified compilation rules in the repository to support the debug, for example:

    on_install("linux", "macosx", function (package)
        os.vrun("./config %s --prefix=\"%s\"", package:debug() and "--debug" or "", package:installdir())
        os.vrun("make -j4")
        os.vrun("make install")

Passing additional compilation information to the package

Some packages have various compile options at compile time, and we can pass them in. Of course, the package itself supports:

add_requires("tbox", {configs = {small=true}})

Pass --small=true to the tbox package so that compiling the installed tbox package is enabled.

We can get a list of all configurable parameters and descriptions of the specified package by executing xmake require --info tbox in the project directory.

such as:

xmake require --info spdlog
      -> requires:
         -> plat: macosx
         -> arch: x86_64
         -> configs:
            -> header_only: true
            -> shared: false
            -> vs_runtime: MT
            -> debug: false
            -> fmt_external: true
            -> noexcept: false
      -> configs:
         -> header_only: Use header only (default: true)
         -> fmt_external: Use external fmt library instead of bundled (default: false)
         -> noexcept: Compile with -fno-exceptions. Call abort() on any spdlog exceptions (default: false)
      -> configs (builtin):
         -> debug: Enable debug symbols. (default: false)
         -> shared: Enable shared library. (default: false)
         -> cflags: Set the C compiler flags.
         -> cxflags: Set the C/C++ compiler flags.
         -> cxxflags: Set the C++ compiler flags.
         -> asflags: Set the assembler flags.
         -> vs_runtime: Set vs compiler runtime. (default: MT)
            -> values: {"MT","MD"}

Among them, configs is the configurable parameters provided by the spdlog package itself, and the configs part with builtin below is the built-in configuration parameters that all packages will have.
The top required section is the current configuration value of the project.

!> vs_runtime is the setting for vs runtime under msvc. In v2.2.9, it also supports automatic inheritance of all static dependencies. That is to say, if spdlog is set to MD, then the fmt package it depends on will also inherit automatically. Set the MD.

It can be seen that we have been able to customize the required packages very conveniently, but each package may have a lot of dependencies. If these dependencies are also customized, what should I do?

Install any version of the package

By default, add_requires("zlib >1.2.x") can only select the package version that exists in the xmake-repo repository, because each version of the package will have a sha256 check value. Use To check the integrity of the package.

Therefore, there is no check value for packages of unknown version, and xmake will not let you choose to use it by default, which is not safe.

What if the package version we need cannot be selected for use? There are two ways, one is to submit a pr to xmake-repo, add the new version of the specified package and the corresponding sha256, for example:

    add_versions("1.2.10", "8d7e9f698ce48787b6e1c67e6bff79e487303e66077e25cb9784ac8835978017")
    add_versions("1.2.11", "c3e5e9fdd5004dcb542feda5ee4f0ff0744628baf8ed2dd5d66f8ca1197cb1a1")

In addition, there is another way that the user passes {verify = false} configuration to add_requires to force the file integrity check of the package to be ignored, so that the sha256 value is not needed, so any version of the package can be installed.

Of course, there will be a certain degree of security and the risk of incomplete packages, which requires users to choose and evaluate.

add_requires("zlib 1.2.11", {verify = false})

Disable external header file search path

By default, packages installed through add_requires will use -isystem or /external:I to refer to the header file path inside, which can usually avoid the unmodifiable warning messages introduced by some package header files.
However, we can still disable external header files by setting {external = false} and switch back to the use of -I.

The compilation flags for external header files are enabled by default as follows:

-isystem /Users/ruki/.xmake/packages/z/zlib/1.2.11/d639b7d6e3244216b403b39df5101abf/include

Manually turn off the compilation flags of external external header files as follows:

add_requires("zlib 1.x", {external = false})
-I /Users/ruki/.xmake/packages/z/zlib/1.2.11/d639b7d6e3244216b403b39df5101abf/include

Install third-party packages

After version 2.2.5, xmake supports support for dependency libraries in third-party package managers, such as: conan, brew, vcpkg, clib and etc.

Add homebrew dependency package

add_requires("brew::zlib", {alias = "zlib"})
add_requires("brew::pcre2/libpcre2-8", {alias = "pcre2"})

    add_packages("pcre2", "zlib")

Add vcpkg dependency package

add_requires("vcpkg::zlib", "vcpkg::pcre2")

    add_packages("vcpkg::zlib", "vcpkg::pcre2")

We can also add a package alias name to simplify the use of add_packages:

add_requires("vcpkg::zlib", {alias = "zlib"})
add_requires("vcpkg::pcre2", {alias = "pcre2"})

    add_packages("zlib", "pcre2")

If the vcpkg package has optional features, we can also directly use the vcpkg syntax format packagename[feature1,feature2] to install the package.



After v2.6.3, xmake supports the new manifest mode of vcpkg, through which we can support version selection of vcpkg package, for example:

add_requires("vcpkg::zlib 1.2.11+10")
add_requires("vcpkg::fmt >=8.0.1", {configs = {baseline = "50fd3d9957195575849a49fa591e645f1d8e7156"}})
add_requires("vcpkg::libpng", {configs = {features = {"apng"}}})

     add_packages("vcpkg::zlib", "vcpkg::fmt", "vcpkg::libpng")

After v2.6.8 it is also possible to additionally configure private repositories, which is only available in manifest mode.

local registries = {
        kind = "git",
        repository = "",
        baseline = "e0e1e83ec66e3c9b36066f79d133b01eb68049f7",
        packages = {
add_requires("vcpkg::skrgamenetworkingsockets >=1.4.0+1", {configs = {registries = registries}})

Add conan dependency package

add_requires("conan::zlib/1.2.11", {alias = "zlib", debug = true})
add_requires("conan::openssl/1.1.1g", {alias = "openssl",
    configs = {options = "OpenSSL:shared=True"}})

    add_packages("openssl", "zlib")

After executing xmake to compile:

ruki:test_package ruki$ xmake
checking for the architecture ... x86_64
checking for the Xcode directory ... /Applications/
checking for the SDK version of Xcode ... 10.14
note: try installing these packages (pass -y to skip confirm)?
  -> conan::zlib/1.2.11 (debug)
  -> conan::openssl/1.1.1g
please input: y (y/n)

  => installing conan::zlib/1.2.11 .. ok
  => installing conan::openssl/1.1.1g .. ok

[  0%]: ccache compiling.release src/main.c
[100%]: linking.release test

Custom conan/settings:

add_requires("conan::poco/1.10.0", {alias = "poco",
    configs = {settings = {"compiler=gcc", "compiler.libcxx=libstdc++11"}}})

Some other conan related configuration items:

    build          = {description = "use it to choose if you want to build from sources.", default = "missing", values = {"all", "never", "missing", "outdated"}},
    remote         = {description = "Set the conan remote server."},
    options        = {description = "Set the options values, e.g. OpenSSL:shared=True"},
    imports        = {description = "Set the imports for conan."},
    settings       = {description = "Set the build settings for conan."},
    build_requires = {description = "Set the build requires for conan.", default = "xmake_generator/0.1.0@bincrafters/testing"}

Add conda dependency package

add_requires("conda::zlib 1.2.11", {alias = "zlib"})


Add pacman dependency package

We support not only the installation and integration of the pacman package on archlinux, but also the installation and integration of the mingw x86_64/i386 package of pacman on msys2.

add_requires("pacman::zlib", {alias = "zlib"})
add_requires("pacman::libpng", {alias = "libpng"})

     add_packages("zlib", "libpng")

On archlinux:


To install the mingw package on msys2, you need to specify the mingw platform:

xmake f -p mingw -a [x86_64|i386]

Add clib dependency package

Clib is a source-based dependency package manager. The dependent package is downloaded directly to the corresponding library source code, integrated into the project to compile, rather than binary library dependencies.

It is also very convenient to integrate in xmake. The only thing to note is that you need to add the source code of the corresponding library to xmake.lua, for example:

add_requires("clib::clibs/bytes@0.0.4", {alias = "bytes"})


Add dub/dlang dependency package

xmake also supports dlang's dub package manager and integrates dlang's dependent packages to use.

add_rules("mode.debug", "mode.release")

add_requires("dub::log 0.4.3", {alias = "log"})
add_requires("dub::dateparser", {alias = "dateparser"})
add_requires("dub::emsi_containers", {alias = "emsi_containers"})
add_requires("dub::stdx-allocator", {alias = "stdx-allocator"})
add_requires("dub::mir-core", {alias = "mir-core"})

     add_packages("log", "dateparser", "emsi_containers", "stdx-allocator", "mir-core")

Add dependency package of ubuntu/apt

After v2.5.4 support the use of apt to integrate dependent packages, and will also automatically find packages that have been installed on the ubuntu system.

add_requires("apt::zlib1g-dev", {alias = "zlib"})


Add gentoo/portage dependency package

After v2.5.4 support the use of Portage integrated dependency packages, and will also automatically find packages already installed on the Gentoo system.

add_requires("portage::libhandy", {alias = "libhandy"})


Add nimble's dependency package

After v2.5.8, it supports the integration of packages in the nimble package manager, but it is currently only used for nim projects, because it does not provide binary packages, but directly installed nim code packages.

add_requires("nimble::zip >1.3")


Add cargo's dependency package

Cargo dependency packages are mainly used for rust project integration, for example:

add_rules("mode.release", "mode.debug")
add_requires("cargo::base64 0.13.0")
add_requires("cargo::flate2 1.0.17", {configs = {features = "zlib"}})

     add_packages("cargo::base64", "cargo::flate2")

However, we can also use cxxbridge in C++ to call the Rust library interface to reuse all Rust packages in disguise.

For a complete example, see: Call Rust in C++

Using self-built private package repository

If the required package is not in the official repository xmake-repo, we can submit the contribution code to the repository for support.
But if some packages are only for personal or private projects, we can create a private repository repo. The repository organization structure can be found at: xmake-repo

For example, now we have a private repository repo:``

We can add the repository with the following command:

$ xmake repo --add myrepo

Starting with v2.2.3, support for adding repos for specified branches, for example:

$ xmake repo --add myrepo dev

Or we write directly in xmake.lua:

add_repositories("my-repo dev")

If we just want to add one or two private packages, this time to build a git repo is too big, we can directly put the package repository into the project, for example:

  - myrepo
    - packages
      - t/tbox/xmake.lua
      - z/zlib/xmake.lua
  - src
    - main.c
  - xmake.lua

The above myrepo directory is your own private package repository, built into your own project, and then add this repository location in xmake.lua:

add_repositories("my-repo myrepo")

This can be referred to benchbox project, which has a built-in private repository.

We can even build a package without directly building a package description into the project xmake.lua, which is useful for relying on one or two packages, for example:



    add_versions("v9c", "650250979303a649e21f87b5ccd02672af1ea6954b911342ea491f351ceb7122")

    on_install("windows", function (package)"", "jconfig.h")
        os.vrun("nmake -f")
        os.cp("*.h", package:installdir("include"))
        os.cp("libjpeg.lib", package:installdir("lib"))

    on_install("macosx", "linux", function (package)




Package Management Command

The package management command $ xmake require can be used to manually display the download, install, uninstall, retrieve, and view package information.

xrepo command

xmake require is only used for the current project. We also provide a more convenient independent xrepo package manager command to install, uninstall, find and manage packages globally.

For detailed documentation, see: Getting Started with Xrepo Commands

Install the specified package

$ xmake require tbox

Install the specified version package:

$ xmake require tbox "~1.6"

Force a re-download of the installation and display detailed installation information:

$ xmake require -f -v tbox "1.5.x"

Pass additional setup information:

$ xmake require --extra="{debug=true,config={small=true}}" tbox

Install the debug package and pass the compilation configuration information of small=true to the package.

Uninstall the specified package

$ xmake require --uninstall tbox

This will completely uninstall the removal package file.

Show package information

$ xmake require --info tbox

Search for packages in the current repository

$ xmake require --search tbox

This is to support fuzzy search and lua pattern matching search:

$ xmake require --search pcr

Will also search for pcre, pcre2 and other packages.

List the currently installed packages

$ xmake require --list

Repository Management Command

As mentioned above, adding a private repository is available (supporting local path addition):

$ xmake repo --add myrepo

We can also remove a repository that has already been installed:

$ xmake repo --remove myrepo

Or view all the added repositories:

$ xmake repo --list

If the remote repository has updates, you can manually perform a repository update to get more and the latest packages:

$ xmake repo -u

Remote package download optimization

If the download package is slow or fails due to an unstable network, we can use the following methods to resolve it.

Manual download

By default, xmake will call curl, wget and other tools to download, users can also manually download with their own downloader (you can also use an agent), put the downloaded package in their own directory, for example: /download/packages/zlib -v1.0.tar.gz

Then use the following command to set the search directory for package download:

$ xmake g --pkg_searchdirs="/download/packages"

Then re-execute xmake to compile, xmake will first look for the source package from /download/packages, and then use it directly, no longer download it yourself.

As for the package name you are looking for, you can check it by the following command:

$ xmake require --info zlib
-> searchdirs: /download/packages
-> searchnames: zlib-1.2.11.tar.gz

We can see the corresponding search directory and the searched package name.

Proxy download

If manual downloading is still troublesome, we can also let xmake go directly to the agent.

$ xmake g --proxy="socks5://"
$ xmake g --help
    -x PROXY, --proxy=PROXY Use proxy on given port. [PROTOCOL://]HOST[:PORT]
                                 -xmake g --proxy='http://host:port'
                                 -xmake g --proxy='https://host:port'
                                 -xmake g --proxy='socks5://host:port'

The --proxy parameter specifies the proxy protocol and address. The specific syntax can refer to curl. Usually, it can support http, https, socks5 and other protocols, but the actual support depends on curl, wget and git. For example, wget does not support the socks5 protocol.

We can use the following parameters to specify which hosts go to the proxy. If not set, the default is to go global.

--proxy_hosts=PROXY_HOSTS Only enable proxy for the given hosts list, it will enable all if be unset,
                             and we can pass match pattern to list:
                                 -xmake g --proxy_hosts=',gitlab.*,*'

If the hosts list is set, then the matching hosts in this list will go to the proxy. .

--proxy_host supports multiple hosts settings, separated by commas, and supports basic pattern matching *, and other lua pattern matching rules are also supported

If we feel that the above hosts mode configuration is not flexible enough, we can also follow pac's automatic proxy configuration rules:

--proxy_pac=PROXY_PAC Set the auto proxy configuration file. (default: pac.lua)
                                     -xmake g --proxy_pac=pac.lua (in /Users/ruki/.xmake or absolute path)
                                     -function main(url, host)
                                           if host =='' then
                                                return true

!> If there are proxy_hosts, the host configuration is preferred, otherwise, the pac configuration can be used.

The default path of pac: ~/.xmake/pac.lua, if --proxy is set, and this file exists, it will automatically go to pac. If it does not exist, and there are no hosts, then the proxy will take effect globally.

You can also manually specify the pac full path

$ xmake g --proxy_pac=/xxxx/xxxxx_pac.lua

Configuration rule description:

function main(url, host)
    if host:find("") then
        return true

If it returns true, then the url and host are the proxy to go, not to return or return false, it is not to proxy.

For specific details of this piece, see:

Mirror Agent

After v2.5.4, mirroring proxy rules can also be configured in the pac.lua configuration. For example, access to all domain names is switched to the domain name to achieve accelerated downloading of packages.

function mirror(url)
      return url:gsub("", "")
$ xrepo install libpng
> curl -o

After v2.6.3, xmake provides some built-in images that can be used directly, such as github's image acceleration:

$ xmake g --proxy_pac=github_mirror.lua

We don't have to write pac.lua ourselves, we can use it directly to speed up the download of github sources.

More built-in mirrors can be viewed through xmake g --help under --proxy_pac=.

Submit packages to the official repository

Package structure in repository

Before making our own package, we need to understand the structure of the next package repository, whether it is the official package repository or the self-built private package repository, the structure is the same:

   - packages
     - t/tbox/xmake.lua
     - z/zlib/xmake.lua

Through the above structure, you can see that each package will have a xmake.lua to describe its installation rules, and according to the z/zlib two-level sub-category storage, convenient for quick retrieval.

Package Description

The description rules for the package are basically done in its xmake.lua, which is similar to the xmake.lua description in the project project. The difference is that the description field only supports package().

However, in the project xmake.lua, you can also directly add package() to the built-in package description, and even the package warehouse is saved, sometimes it will be more convenient.

First, let's take a look at zlib's description rules first. This rule can be found at xmake-repo/z/zlib/xmake.lua.


    set_description("A Massively Spiffy Yet Delicately Unobtrusive Compression Library")


    add_versions("1.2.10", "8d7e9f698ce48787b6e1c67e6bff79e487303e66077e25cb9784ac8835978017")
    add_versions("1.2.11", "c3e5e9fdd5004dcb542feda5ee4f0ff0744628baf8ed2dd5d66f8ca1197cb1a1")

    on_install("windows", function (package)
        io.gsub("win32/Makefile.msc", "%-MD", "-" .. package:config("vs_runtime"))
        os.vrun("nmake -f win32\\Makefile.msc zlib.lib")
        os.cp("zlib.lib", package:installdir("lib"))
        os.cp("*.h", package:installdir("include"))

    on_install("linux", "macosx", function (package)
        import("").install(package, {"--static"})

    on_install("iphoneos", "android@linux,macosx", "mingw@linux,macosx", function (package)
        import("").configure(package, {host = "", "--static"})
        io.gsub("Makefile", "\nAR=.-\n",      "\nAR=" .. (package:build_getenv("ar") or "") .. "\n")
        io.gsub("Makefile", "\nARFLAGS=.-\n", "\nARFLAGS=cr\n")
        io.gsub("Makefile", "\nRANLIB=.-\n",  "\nRANLIB=\n")
        os.vrun("make install -j4")

    on_test(function (package)
        assert(package:has_cfuncs("inflate", {includes = "zlib.h"}))

This package rule adds installation rules to windows, linux, macosx, iphoneos, mingw and other platforms. Basically, it has achieved full platform coverage, and even some cross-compilation platforms, which is a typical example.

Of course, some packages rely on source code implementation and are not completely cross-platform, so you only need to set the installation rules for the platforms it supports.


Set the official page address of the project where the package is located.


Set the package description information, generally see the relevant package information through xmake require --info zlib.


Set the package type. For the dependent library, you don't need to set it. If it is an executable package, you need to set it to binary.


    set_description("A cross-platform family of tool designed to build, test and package software")


Set the source package or git repository address of the package. Unlike add_urls, this interface is the override setting, and add_urls is the additional setting. Other usage methods are similar. This is chosen according to different needs.


Add the source package of the package or the git repository address. This interface is generally paired with add_version to set the version of each source package and the corresponding sha256 value.

!> You can add multiple urls as the mirror source, xmake will automatically detect the fastest url for download, and if the download fails, try other urls.

add_versions("1.3.1", "51472d3a191d6d7b425e32b612e477c06f73fe23e07f6a6a839b11808e9d2267")

The $(version) built-in variable in urls will be adapted according to the version selected during the actual installation, and the version number is selected from the list of versions specified in add_versions.

If there is a more complicated version string for urls and there is no direct correspondence with add_versions, you need to customize the conversion in the following way:

         {version = function (version) return version:gsub("%.", "") end})

add_versions("3.24.0", "d9d14e88c6fb6d68de9ca0d1f9797477d82fc3aed613558f87ffbdbbc5ceb74a")
add_versions("3.23.0", "b7711a1800a071674c2bf76898ae8584fc6c9643cfe933cfc1bc54361e3a6e49")

Of course, we can only add the git source address:


If the source code package sha256 corresponding to multiple mirror addresses is different, we can set them separately by means of alias:

add_urls("$(version).tar.bz2", {alias = "home"})
add_urls("$(version).zip", {alias = "github"})
add_versions("home:4.0.2", "346c51735f42c37e0712e0b3d2f6476c86ac15863e4445d9e823fe396420d056")
add_versions("github:4.0.2", "4df1ef0bf73b7148caea1270539ef7bd06607e0ea8aa2fbf1bb34062a097f026")


Used to set the version of each source package and the corresponding sha256 value, as described in add_urls


This interface is used for the source code package. Before compiling and installing, firstly set the corresponding patch package, compile it, and support multiple patches at the same time.

if is_plat("macosx") then
    add_patches("1.15", "",

For example, the above code, when compiled for macosx, is marked with the corresponding patch-utf8mac.diff patch, and each patch is also set to the value of sha256 to ensure integrity.

By default, xmake will automatically detect the installed libraries and set the link relationship, but sometimes it is not very accurate. If you want to manually adjust the link order and the link name, you can set it through this interface.

add_links("mbedtls", "mbedx509", "mbedcrypto")

Add some system library links. When some packages integrate links, you also need to rely on some system libraries to link them. This time you can attach them to the package description.

if is_plat("macosx") then
    add_frameworks("CoreGraphics", "CoreFoundation", "Foundation")
elseif is_plat("windows") then
    add_syslinks("gdi32", "msimg32", "user32")


Add a dependent system frameworks link.

See for example: add_syslinks


The package's link library search directory can also be adjusted, but it is usually not needed, unless some libraries are not installed under prefix/lib, but in the lib subdirectory, the default search is not available.


Add another header file search directory.


Some specific definition options can be exported to the integrated package.


We can add the external output configuration parameters of each package through this interface:


    set_description("A Perl Compatible Regular Expressions Library")

    add_configs("bitwidth", {description = "Set the code unit width.", default = "8", values = {"8", "16", "32"}})

    on_load(function (package)
        local bitwidth = package:config("bitwidth") or "8"
        package:add("links", "pcre2-" .. bitwidth)
        package:add("defines", "PCRE2_CODE_UNIT_WIDTH=" .. bitwidth)

In the engineering project, we can also view a list of configurable parameters and values for a particular package:

$ xmake require --info pcre2
The package info of project:
      -> description: A Perl Compatible Regular Expressions Library
      -> version: 10.31
      -> configs:
         -> bitwidth:
            -> description: Set the code unit width.
            -> values: {"8","16","32"}
            -> default: 8

Then in the project, enable these configurations and compile the package with the specific configuration:

add_requires("pcre2", {configs = {bitwidth = 16}})


Starting from version 2.5.2, we have also added two configuration interfaces add_extsources and on_fetch, which can better configure xmake to search for system libraries during the process of installing C/C++ packages.

As for the specific background, we can give an example. For example, we added a package of package("libusb") to the xmake-repo repository .

Then users can directly integrate and use it in the following ways:


If libusb is not installed on the user's system, xmake will automatically download the libusb library source code, automatically compile, install and integrate, and there is no problem.

But if the user installs the libusb library to the system through apt install libusb-1.0, then xmake should automatically search for the libusb package installed by the user in the system environment first, and use it directly, avoiding additional download, compilation and installation.

But here comes the problem, xmake internally passes find_package("libusb") and fails to find it. Why is that? Because the package name of libusb installed via apt is libusb-1.0, not libusb.

We can only find it through pkg-config --cflags libusb-1.0, but the default find_package logic inside xmake doesn't know the existence of libusb-1.0, so it can't be found.

Therefore, in order to better adapt to the search of system libraries in different system environments, we can use add_extsources("pkgconfig::libusb-1.0") to let xmake improve the search logic, for example:

    on_install(function (package)
        - ...

In addition, we can also use this method to improve the search for packages installed by other package managers such as homebrew/pacman, for example: add_extsources("pacman::libusb-1.0").


The Add Package Dependencies interface allows us to automatically install all dependencies of a package when we install it by configuring the dependencies between packages.

Also, by default, cmake/autoconf will automatically find the libraries and headers of all dependent packages as soon as we have configured the dependencies.

Of course, if for some special reason the cmake script for the current package does not find the dependencies properly, then we can also force the dependencies to be typed in with {packagedeps = "xxx"}.


    add_deps("cmake", "bar")
    on_install(function (package)
        local configs = {}
        import("").install(package, configs)

The foo package is maintained using CMakeLists.txt and it relies on the bar package during installation, so xmake will install bar first and have cmake.install automatically find the bar installed library when it calls cmake.

However, if foo's CMakeLists.txt still does not automatically find bar, then we can change it to the following configuration to force bar's includedirs/links etc. to be passed into foo by way of flags.

    add_deps("cmake", "bar")
    on_install(function (package)
        local configs = {}
        import("").install(package, configs, {packages = "bar"})


This is a new interface added in 2.7.3 to support componentized configuration of packages, see: #2636 for details.

With this interface we can configure the list of components that are actually available for the current package.

    add_components("audio", "network", "window")

On the user side, we can use package specific components in the following way.


    add_packages("sfml", {components = "graphics")

!> Note: In addition to configuring the list of available components, we also need to configure each component in detail for it to work properly, so it is usually used in conjunction with the on_componment interface.

A full example of the configuration and use of package components can be found at: components example


This is a newly added interface in 2.6.4, through which we can inherit all the configuration of an existing package, and then rewrite some of the configuration on this basis.

This is usually in the user's own project, it is more useful to modify the built-in package of the xmake-repo official repository, such as: repairing and changing urls, modifying the version list, installation logic, etc.

For example, modify the url of the built-in zlib package to switch to your own zlib source address.


add_requires("myzlib", {system = false, alias = "zlib"})


We can also use it to simply add an alias package.


We can install the tbb package through add_requires("onetbb") integration, but the package name is different.


This is an optional interface. If you want to be more flexible and dynamically judge various platform architectures, you can do it in this way, for example:

on_load(function (package)
    Local bitwidth = package:config("bitwidth") or "8"
    package:add("links", "pcre" .. (bitwidth ~= "8" and bitwidth or ""))
    If not package:config("shared") then
        package:add("defines", "PCRE_STATIC")

The pcre package needs to do some judgment on the bitwidth to determine the name of the link library for external output. It also needs to add some defines to the dynamic library. This time, it is more flexible when set in on_load. To find out what methods are available to package look here.


This is an optional configuration. After 2.5.2, if the system libraries installed under different systems only have different package names, then using add_extsources to improve the system library search is sufficient, simple and convenient.

However, if some packages are installed in the system, the location is more complicated. To find them, some additional scripts may be needed. For example: access to the registry under windows to find packages, etc. At this time, we can use on_fetchFully customized search system library logic.

Let's take libusb as an example. Instead of add_extsources, we can use the following method to achieve the same effect. Of course, we can do more things in it.

     on_fetch("linux", function(package, opt)
         if opt.system then
             return find_package("pkgconfig::libusb-1.0")

To find out what methods are available to package look here.


This interface is mainly used to add installation scripts. The preceding string parameters are used to set up supported platforms. Other script fields like on_load, on_test are also supported.


The download logic of the custom package, which is a new interface added in 2.6.4, is usually not used, and it is enough to use the built-in download of Xmake.

If the user builds a private repository and has a more complex authentication mechanism and special processing logic for the download of the package, the internal download logic can be rewritten to achieve this.

on_download(function (package, opt)
     -- download packages:urls() to opt.sourcedir

In the opt parameter, you can get the destination source directory opt.sourcedir of the downloaded package. We only need to get the package address from package:urls() and download it.

Then, add some custom processing logic as needed. In addition, you can add download cache processing and so on.

Platform Filtering

The complete filtering syntax is as follows: plat|arch1,arch2@host|arch1,arch2

It looks very complicated, but it is very simple. Each stage is optional and can be partially omitted. Corresponding: `Compile Platform|Compile Architecture@Host Platform|Host Architecture

If you do not set any platform filtering conditions, then the default full platform support, the script inside is effective for all platforms, for example:

on_install(function (package)
    -- TODO

If the installation script is valid for a specific platform, then directly specify the corresponding compilation platform, you can specify more than one at the same time:

on_install("linux", "macosx", function (package)
    -- TODO

If you want to break down to the specified architecture to take effect, you can write:

on_install("linux|x86_64", "iphoneos|arm64", function (package)
    -- TODO

If you want to limit the execution of the host environment platform and architecture, you can append @host|arch to the end, for example:

on_install("mingw@windows", function (package)
    -- TODO

This means that only the mingw platform is valid for Windows.

We can also specify the host platform and architecture without specifying a platform and architecture. This is usually used to describe some dependencies related to the build tool and can only be run in the host environment.

For example, the package we compiled depends on cmake, we need to add the package description of cmake, then the compiler installation environment can only be the host platform:

on_install("@windows", "@linux", "@macosx", function (package)
    -- TODO

Some other examples:

-- `@linux`
-- `@linux|x86_64`
-- `@macosx,linux`
-- `android@macosx, linux`
-- `android|armeabi-v7a@macosx,linux`
-- `android|armeabi-v7a@macosx,linux|x86_64`
-- `android|armeabi-v7a@linux|x86_64`
Compilation Tools

We have built-in scripts for installing common build tools for convenient build support for different source code-dependent build toolchains, such as autoconf, cmake, meson, etc.


If it is a xmake-based dependency package, then the integration is very simple, xmake has very good built-in integration support, you can directly support it for cross-platform compilation, generally only need to:

on_install(function (package)

If you want to pass some unique build configuration parameters:

on_install(function (package)
    import("").install(package, {"--xxx=y"})

If it is a cmake-based package, the integration is also very short-answered. Usually you only need to set some configuration parameters, but you need to add the cmake dependency first:

on_install(function (package)
    import("").install(package, {"-Dxxx=ON"})

If it is based on autoconf package, the integration method is similar to cmake, but the configuration parameters are different. However, under normal circumstances, the Unix system has built-in autoconf series tools, so it is fine without any dependencies.

on_install(function (package)
    import("").install(package, {"--enable-shared=no"})

However, some source packages may not be fully satisfied with the system's built-in autoconf, so you can add autoconf family dependencies and build them:

add_deps("autoconf", "automake", "libtool", "pkg-config")
on_install(function (package)
    import("").install(package, {"--enable-shared=no"})

If it is meson, you need to add ninja's dependencies to perform the build.

add_deps("meson", "ninja")
on_install(function (package)
    import("").install(package, {"-Dxxx=ON"})

If it is a GN project, you can build and install it using the following methods. Make sure to also add ninja as a dependency.

add_deps("gn", "ninja")
on_install(function (package)

You can also build and install projects using makefiles.

on_install(function (package)

If the package uses Visual Studio projects you can build them using msbuild.

on_install(function (package)
    -- you then have to copy the built binaries manually

You can also build and install packages with ninja.

on_install(function (package)

You can build and install packages with nmake

on_install(function (package)

You can build packages using scons.

on_install(function (package)
    -- you then need to manually copy the built binaries


After installation, you need to set the corresponding test script, perform some tests to ensure the reliability of the installation package, if the test does not pass, the entire installation package will be revoked.

on_test(function (package)
    assert(package:has_cfuncs("inflate", {includes = "zlib.h"}))

The above script calls the built-in has_cfuncs interface to detect whether the zlib.h header file exists in the installed package, and whether the interface function inflate exists in the library and header files.

Xmake will try to compile the link for testing, has_cfuncs for detecting c functions, and has_cxxfuncs for detecting c++ library functions.

And include multiple header files in include, for example: includes = {"xxx.h", "yyy.h"}

We can also pass some of our own compilation parameters into the detection, for example:

on_test(function (package)
    assert(package:has_cxxfuncs("func1", {includes = "xxx.h", configs = {defines = "c++14", cxflags = "-Dxxx"}}))

We can also detect a code snippet with check_csnippets and check_cxxsnippets:

on_test(function (package)
    assert(package:check_cxxsnippets({test = [[
        using namespace boost::algorithm;
        using namespace std;
        static void test() {
            string str("a,b");
            vector strVec;
            split(strVec, str, is_any_of(","));
    ]]}, {configs = {languages = "c++14"}}))

if it is an executable package, it can also be detected by trying to run:

on_test(function (package)"xxx --help")

if the run fails, the test will not pass.


This is a new interface added in 2.7.3 to support component-based configuration of packages, see: #2636 for details.

Through this interface we can configure the current package, specifying component details such as links to components, dependencies etc.

Configuring component link information
    add_components("audio", "network", "window")

    on_component("graphics", function (package, component)
        local e = package:config("shared") and "" or "-s"
        component:add("links", "sfml-graphics" ... e)
        if package:is_plat("windows", "mingw") and not package:config("shared") then
            component:add("links", "freetype")
            component:add("syslinks", "opengl32", "gdi32", "user32", "advapi32")

    on_component("window", function (package, component)
        local e = package:config("shared") and "" or "-s"
        component:add("links", "sfml-window" ... e)
        if package:is_plat("windows", "mingw") and not package:config("shared") then
            component:add("syslinks", "opengl32", "gdi32", "user32", "advapi32")


On the user side, we can use package specific components in the following way.


    add_packages("sfml", {components = "graphics")

!> Note: In addition to configuring the component information, we also need to configure the list of available components in order to use it properly, so it is usually used in conjunction with the add_components interface.

A full example of the configuration and use of package components can be found at: components example

Configuring compilation information for components

We can configure not only the linking information for each component, but also the compilation information for includedirs, defines etc. We can also configure each component individually.

    on_component("graphics", function (package, component)
        package:add("defines", "TEST")
Configuring component dependencies
    add_components("audio", "network", "window")

    on_component("graphics", function (package, component)
          component:add("deps", "window", "system")

The above configuration tells the package that our graphics component will have additional dependencies on the window and system components.

So, on the user side, our use of the graphics component can be done from the

    add_packages("sfml", {components = {"graphics", "window", "system"})

Simplified to.

    add_packages("sfml", {components = "graphics")

Because, as soon as we turn on the graphics component, it will also automatically enable the dependent window and system components.

Alternatively, we can configure component dependencies with add_components("graphics", {deps = {"window", "system"}}).

Finding components from the system library

We know that configuring add_extsources in the package configuration can improve package discovery on the system, for example by finding libraries from system package managers such as apt/pacman.

Of course, we can also make it possible for each component to prioritise finding them from the system repositories via the extsources configuration as well.

For example, the sfml package, which is actually also componentized in homebrew, can be made to find each component from the system repository without having to install them in source each time.

$ ls -l /usr/local/opt/sfml/lib/pkgconfig
-r--r--r-- 1 ruki admin 317 10 19 17:52 sfml-all.pc
-r--r--r-- 1 ruki admin 534 10 19 17:52 sfml-audio.pc
-r--r--r-- 1 ruki admin 609 10 19 17:52 sfml-graphics.pc
-r--r--r-- 1 ruki admin 327 10 19 17:52 sfml-network.pc
-r--r--r-- 1 ruki admin 302 10 19 17:52 sfml-system.pc
-r--r--r-- 1 ruki admin 562 10 19 17:52 sfml-window.pc

We just need, for each component, to configure its extsources: the

    if is_plat("macosx") then

    on_component("graphics", function (package, component)
        -- ...
        component:add("extsources", "brew::sfml/sfml-graphics")
Default global component configuration

In addition to configuring specific components by specifying component names, if we don't specify a component name, the default is to globally configure all components.

    on_component(function (package, component)
        -- configure all components

Of course, we could also specify the configuration of the graphics component and the rest of the components would be configured via the default global configuration interface in the following way.

    add_components("audio", "network", "window")

    on_component("graphics", function (package, component)
        -- configure graphics

    on_component(function (package, component)
        -- component audio, network, window, system

Extended configuration parameters

See: add_configs for details.

Built-in configuration parameters

In addition to setting some extended configuration parameters via add_configs, xmake also provides some built-in configuration parameters that can be used.

Enable debug package

add_requires("xxx", {debug = true})

There must be relevant processing in the package description to support:

on_install(function (package)
    Local configs = {}
    if package:debug() then
        Table.insert(configs, "--enable-debug")

Setting up the msvc runtime library

add_requires("xxx", {configs = {vs_runtime = "MT"}})

Normally, packages installed by built-in tool scripts such as import("").install are automatically processed internally by vs_runtime.

But if it is a special source package, the build rules are special, then you need to handle it yourself:

on_install(function (package)
    io.gsub("build/Makefile.win32.common", "%-MD", "-" .. package:config("vs_runtime"))

Adding environment variables

For some libraries, there are also executable tools. if you need to use these tools in the integration package, you can also set the corresponding PATH environment variable:

    on_load(function (package)
        if is_plat("windows") then
            Package:addenv("PATH", "lib")
        Package:addenv("PATH", "bin")

In the project project, the corresponding environment variables will only take effect after the corresponding package is integrated by add_packages.

    after_run(function (package)
        os.exec("luajit --version")

Installing binary packages

Xmake also supports direct reference to the binary version package, which is used directly for installation, for example:

if is_plat("windows") then
    add_versions("2.0.8", "68505e1f7c16d8538e116405411205355a029dcf2df738dbbc768b2fe95d20fd")

on_install("windows", function (package)
    os.cp("include", package:installdir())
    os.cp("lib/$(arch)/*.lib", package:installdir("lib"))
    os.cp("lib/$(arch)/*.dll", package:installdir("lib"))

Local test

If you have added and created a new package in the local xmake-repo repository, you can run the test locally and pass it. If the test passes, you can submit the pr to the official repository and request the merge.

We can execute the following script to test the specified package:

cd xmake-repo
xmake l scripts/test.lua -v -D zlib

The above command will force the download and installation of the zlib package to test whether the entire installation process is ok, plus -v -D is to see the complete detailed log information and error information, which is convenient for debugging analysis.

If the network environment is not good, do not want to re-download all dependencies every time, you can add the --shallow parameter to execute, this parameter tells the script, just re-decompress the local cached zlib source package, re-execute the installation command, but Will not download various dependencies.

cd xmake-repo
xmake l scripts/test.lua -v -D --shallow zlib

If we want to test the package rules of other platforms, such as: android, iphoneos and other platforms, you can specify by -p/--plat or -a/--arch.

cd xmake-repo
xmake l scripts/test.lua -v -D --shallow -p iphoneos -a arm64 zlib
xmake l scripts/test.lua -v -D --shallow -p android --ndk=/xxxx zlib

Submit package to the official repository

If you need a package that is not supported by the current official repository, you can commit it to the official repository after local tuning: xmake-repo

For detailed contribution descriptions, see:

For how to make your own package, you can look at the above: Adding packages to the official repository.

Dependent package lock and upgrade

After v2.5.7, version locks of dependent packages have been added, similar to npm's package.lock and cargo's cargo.lock.

For example, if we quote some packages, by default, if the version is not specified, xmake will automatically pull the latest version of the package for integrated use each time, for example:


However, if the upstream package warehouse is updated and changed, for example, zlib adds a new version 1.2.11, or the installation script is changed, the user's dependent packages will change.

This can easily lead to some projects that were originally compiled and passed, and there may be some unstable factors due to changes in dependent packages, and the compilation may fail, etc.

In order to ensure that the package used by the user's project is fixed each time, we can enable the package dependency lock through the following configuration.

set_policy("package.requires_lock", true)

This is a global setting and must be set to the global root scope. If enabled, xmake will automatically generate a xmake-requires.lock configuration file after executing package pull.

It contains all the packages that the project depends on, as well as the current package version and other information.

    __meta__ = {
        version = "1.0"
    ["macosx|x86_64"] = {
        ["cmake#31fecfc4"] = {
            repo = {
                branch = "master",
                commit = "4498f11267de5112199152ab030ed139c985ad5a",
                url = ""
            version = "3.21.0"
        ["glfw#31fecfc4"] = {
            repo = {
                branch = "master",
                commit = "eda7adee81bac151f87c507030cc0dd8ab299462",
                url = ""
            version = "3.3.4"
        ["opengl#31fecfc4"] = {
            repo = {
                branch = "master",
                commit = "94d2eee1f466092e04c5cf1e4ecc8c8883c1d0eb",
                url = ""

Of course, we can also execute the following command to force the upgrade package to the latest version.

$ xmake require --upgrade
upgrading packages ..
  zlib: 1.2.10 -> 1.2.11
1 package is upgraded!

Distributing and using custom package rules

Since version 2.7.2 we have been able to add custom build rule scripts to the package management repository to enable dynamic distribution and installation following packages.

We need to place the custom rules in the packages/x/xxx/rules directory of the repository and it will follow the package as it is installed.

But it has also some limits:

Adding package rules

We need to add the rules script to the rules fixed directory, for example: packages/z/zlib/rules/foo.lua

    on_config(function (target)
        print("foo: on_config %s", target:name())

Applying package rules

The rules are used in a similar way as before, the only difference being that we need to specify which package's rules to access by prefixing them with @packagename/.

The exact format: add_rules("@packagename/rulename")`, e.g.:add_rules("@zlib/foo")`.

add_requires("zlib", {system = false})

### Referencing rules by package alias

If a package alias exists, xmake will give preference to the package alias to get the rules.

``` lua
add_requires("zlib", {alias = "zlib2", system = false})

Adding package rule dependencies

We can use add_deps("@bar") to add additional rules relative to the current package directory.

However, we cannot add rule dependencies from other packages, they are completely isolated and we can only refer to rules from other packages imported by add_requires in the user project.


    on_config(function (target)
        print("foo: on_config %s", target:name())


    on_config(function (target)
        print("bar: on_config %s", target:name())

Using Xrepo's package management in CMake

CMake wrapper for Xrepo C and C++ package manager.

This allows using CMake to build your project, while using Xrepo to manage
dependent packages. This project is partially inspired by

Example use cases for this project:



xrepo.cmake provides xrepo_package function to manage

    "foo 1.2.3"
    [CONFIGS feature1=true,feature2=false]
    [CONFIGS path/to/script.lua]
    [MODE debug|release]
    [ALIAS aliasname]
    [OUTPUT verbose|diagnosis|quiet]

Some of the function arguments correspond directly to Xrepo command options.

xrepo_package adds package install directory to CMAKE_PREFIX_PATH. So find_package
can be used. If CMAKE_MINIMUM_REQUIRED_VERSION >= 3.1, cmake PkgConfig will also search
for pkgconfig files under package install directories.

After calling xrepo_package(foo), there are three ways to use foo package:

  1. Call find_package(foo) if package provides cmake config-files.
    • Refer to CMake find_package documentation for more details.
  2. If the package does not provide cmake config files or find modules
    • Following variables can be used to use the pacakge (variable names following cmake
      find modules standard variable names)
      • foo_INCLUDE_DIRS
      • foo_LIBRARY_DIRS
      • foo_LIBRARIES
      • foo_DEFINITIONS
    • If DIRECTORY_SCOPE is specified, xrepo_package will run following code
  3. Use xrepo_target_packages. Please refer to following section.

Note CONFIGS path/to/script.lua is for fine control over package configs.
For example:

If DEPS is specified, all dependent libraries will add to CMAKE_PREFIX_PATH, along with include,
libraries being included in the four variables.


Add package includedirs and links/linkdirs to the given target.

    package1 package2 ...

Use package from official repository

Xrepo official repository: xmake-repo

Here's an example CMakeLists.txt that uses gflags package version 2.2.2
managed by Xrepo.

Integrate xrepo.cmake

cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.13.0)


# Download xrepo.cmake if not exists in build directory.
if(NOT EXISTS "${CMAKE_BINARY_DIR}/xrepo.cmake")
    message(STATUS "Downloading xrepo.cmake from")
    # mirror
    file(DOWNLOAD ""
                  TLS_VERIFY ON)

# Include xrepo.cmake so we can use xrepo_package function.

Add basic packages


add_executable(example-bin "")
target_sources(example-bin PRIVATE
xrepo_target_packages(example-bin zlib)

Add packages with configs

xrepo_package("gflags 2.2.2" CONFIGS "shared=true,mt=true")

add_executable(example-bin "")
target_sources(example-bin PRIVATE
xrepo_target_packages(example-bin gflags)

Add packages with cmake modules

xrepo_package("gflags 2.2.2" CONFIGS "shared=true,mt=true")

# `xrepo_package` add gflags install directory to CMAKE_PREFIX_PATH.
# As gflags provides cmake config-files, we can now call `find_package` to find
# gflags package.
# Refer to
find_package(gflags CONFIG COMPONENTS shared)

add_executable(example-bin "")
target_sources(example-bin PRIVATE
target_link_libraries(example-bin gflags)

Add custom packages

We can also add custom packages in our project.


add_executable(example-bin "")
target_sources(example-bin PRIVATE
xrepo_target_packages(example-bin myzlib)

Define myzlib package in packages/xmake.lua

    set_description("A Massively Spiffy Yet Delicately Unobtrusive Compression Library")


    add_versions("1.2.10", "8d7e9f698ce48787b6e1c67e6bff79e487303e66077e25cb9784ac8835978017")

    on_install(function (package)
      -- TODO

    on_test(function (package)
        assert(package:has_cfuncs("inflate", {includes = "zlib.h"}))

We can write a custom package in xmake.lua, please refer Define Xrepo package.

Options and variables for xrepo.cmake

Following options can be speicified with cmake -D=.
Or use set(var value) in CMakeLists.txt.

Switching compiler and cross compilation

Following variables controll cross compilation. Note: to specify a different compiler other than
the default one on system, platform must be set to "cross".

Use package from 3rd repository

In addition to installing packages from officially maintained repository,
Xrepo can also install packages from third-party package managers such as vcpkg/conan/conda/pacman/homebrew/apt/dub/cargo.

For the use of the command line, we can refer to the documentation: Xrepo command usage

We can also use it directly in cmake to install packages from third-party repositories, just add the repository name as a namespace. e.g. vcpkg::zlib, conan::pcre2




xrepo_package("conda::gflags 2.2.2")





How does it work?

xrepo.cmake module basically does the following tasks:

The following section is a short introduction to using Xrepo. It helps to
understand how xrepo.cmake works and how to specify some of the options in

Xrepo workflow

Assmuing Xmake is installed.

Suppose we want to use gflags packages.

First, search for gflags package in Xrepo.

$ xrepo search gflags
The package names:
      -> gflags-v2.2.2: The gflags package contains a C++ library that implements commandline flags processing. (in builtin-repo)

It's already in Xrepo, so we can use it. If it's not in Xrepo, we can create it in
self-built repositories.

Let's see what configs are available for the package before using it:

$ xrepo info gflags
      -> configs:
         -> mt: Build the multi-threaded gflags library. (default: false)
      -> configs (builtin):
         -> debug: Enable debug symbols. (default: false)
         -> shared: Build shared library. (default: false)
         -> pic: Enable the position independent code. (default: true)

Suppose we want to use multi-threaded gflags shared library. We can install the package with following command:

xrepo install --mode=release --configs='mt=true,shared=true' 'gflags 2.2.2'

Only the first call to the above command will compile and install the package.
To speed up cmake configuration, xrepo command will only be executed when the
package is not installed or xrepo_package parameters have changed.

After package installation, because we are using CMake instead of Xmake, we have
to get package installation information by ourself. xrepo fetch command does
exactly this:

xrepo fetch --json --mode=release --configs='mt=true,shared=true' 'gflags 2.2.2'

The above command will print out package's include, library directory along with
other information. xrepo_package uses these information to setup variables to use
the specified package.

For CMake 3.19 and later which has JSON support, xrepo_package parses the JSON
output. For previous version of CMake, xrepo_package uses only the --cflags option
to get package include directory. Library and cmake module directory are infered from that
directory, so it maybe unreliable to detect the correct paths.